Cimicifuga racemosa Nutt.

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Rizoma.

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action:
Hipotensora, reguladora hormonal durante el climaterio, antiinflamatoria.

EFECTOS ADVERSOS Y/O TOXICOLOGÍA= Adverse effects and toxicology:
Dosis excesivas: náuseas, vómitos, vértigos, bradisfignia, trastornos visuales y nerviosos. No se recomienda su empleo durante el embarazo.

POSOLOGÍA= Posology
:
Como tintura (1:10 en 60% de alcohol) se recomiendan 2-4 ml diarios.

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition:
N-metilcitisina, acteína, 12-acetil-acteína, cinigósido, taninos, ácidos: acético, butírico, fórmico, isoferúlico, oleico, palmítico, salicílico; isoflavonas, formononetina, acteíno en complejo mixto, fitoesteroles, cinicifugina, aceite esencial.

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA= Geografical zone:
Canadá y costa atlántica de Estados Unidos (Massachussetts, Ohio, Indiana y Giorgia).

Nota de alcance

DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA Y MEJORAMIENTO DE PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants and improvement of medicinal herbs:

Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa, syn. Cimicifuga racemosa) is a popular herb used for relieving menopausal
discomforts. A variety of secondary metabolites, including triterpenoids, phenolic dimers, and serotonin derivs. have
been assocd. with its biol. activity, but the genes and metabolic pathways as well as the tissue distribution of their prodn. in this plant are unknown. A gene discovery effort was initiated in A. racemosa by partial sequencing of cDNA libraries constructed from young leaf, rhizome, and root tissues. In total, 2066 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were assembled into 1590 unique genes (unigenes). Most of the unigenes were predicted to encode primary metab. genes, but about 70 were identified as putative secondary metab. genes. Several of these candidates were analyzed further and full-length cDNA and genomic sequences for a putative 2,3 oxidosqualene cyclase (CAS1) and two BAHD-type acyltransferases (ACT1 and HCT1) were obtained. Homol.-based PCR screening for the central gene in plant serotonin biosynthesis, tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC), identified two TDC-related sequences in A. racemosa. CAS1, ACT1, and HCT1 were expressed in most plant tissues, whereas expression of TDC genes was detected only sporadically in immature flower heads and some very young leaf tissues. The cDNA libraries described and assorted genes identified provide initial insight into gene content and diversity in black cohosh, and provide tools and resources for detailed investigations of secondary metabolite genes and enzymes in this important medicinal plant. The EST sequences are deposited in GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ with accession nos. HO116135-HO118200.

Nota de alcance

ÚLTIMOS AVANCES EN LA QUÍMICA Y ACTIVIDADES BACTERIOLÓGICAS EN LAS PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants, last advances on chemistry and bacteria activities on the medicinal herbs

1) Long-term exposure to estrogens including those in traditional hormone replacement therapy (HRT) increases the risk of developing hormone-dependent cancers. As a result, women are turning to over-the-counter (OTC) botanical dietary supplements, such as black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) and hops (Humulus lupulus), as natural alternatives to HRT. The two major mechanisms which likely contribute to estrogen and/or HRT cancer risk are: the estrogen receptormediated hormonal pathway; and the chem. carcinogenesis pathway involving formation of estrogen quinones that damage DNA and proteins, hence initiating and promoting carcinogenesis. Because, OTC botanical HRT alternatives are in widespread use, they may have the potential for chemopreventive effects on estrogen carcinogenic pathways in vivo. Therefore, the effect of OTC botanicals on estrogen-induced malignant transformation of MCF-10A cells was studied. Cytochrome P 450 catalyzed hydroxylation of estradiol at the 4-position leads to an o-quinone believed to act as the proximal carcinogen. Liq. chromatog./tandem mass spectrometry anal. of estradiol metabolites showed that 4-hydroxylation was inhibited by hops, whereas black cohosh was without effect. Estrogen-induced expression of CYP450 1B1 and CYP450 1A1 was attenuated by the hops ext. Two phenolic constituents of hops (xanthohumol, XH; 8-prenylnaringenin, 8-PN) were tested: 8-PN was a potent inhibitor, whereas XH had no effect. Finally, estrogen-induced malignant transformation of MCF-10A cells was obsd. to be significantly inhibited by hops (5 mg/mL) and 8-PN (50 nmol/L). These data suggest that hops exts. possess cancer chemopreventive activity through attenuation of estrogenmetab. mediated by 8-PN.

2)  Dried rhizomes of Cimicifuga racemosa (CR), known as black cohosh, have been widely used as a herbal dietary
supplement in the treatment of menopausal symptoms. Here we used exptl. mouse stress models to investigate the role of anti-stress food factors, and found that a CR ext. had stress-relieving effects. A single oral administration of CR ext. (1,000 mg/kg) significantly attenuated plasma corticosterone and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels that had increased as a result of enforced immobilization. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the CR ext. resulted in the isolation of 10 triterpenes, among which actein, 23-epi-26-deoxyactein, and cimiracemoside F (100 mg/kg, per os) were shown to contribute to the anti-stress effects. Furthermore, the CR ext. significantly prevented the development of water immersion stress-induced gastric mucosal ulcers in rats. We propose that the CR ext. might be suitable for the prevention and treatment of stress-related disorders.

3) Objective. The antihormonal therapy of breast cancer patients with the antiestrogen tamoxifen often induces or
aggravates menopausal complaints. As estrogen substitution is contraindicated, herbal alternatives, e.g. exts. of black
cohosh are often used.Design. A prospective observational study was carried out in 50 breast cancer patients with
tamoxifen treatment. All patients had had surgery, most of them had undergone radiation therapy (87%%) and approx.
50%% had received chemotherapy. Every patient was treated with an isopropanolic ext. of black cohosh (1-4 tablets, 2.5 mg) for 6 mo. Patients recorded their complaints before therapy and after 1, 3, and 6 mo of therapy using the
menopause rating scale (MRS II).Results. The redn. of the total MRS II score under black cohosh treatment from 17.6 to 13.6 was statistically significant. Hot flashes, sweating, sleep problems, and anxiety improved, whereas urogenital and musculoskeletal complaints did not change. In all, 22 patients reported adverse events, none of which were linked with the study medication; 90%% reported the tolerability of the black cohosh ext. as very good or good.Conclusions. Black cohosh ext. seems to be a reasonable treatment approach in tamoxifen treated breast cancer patients with predominantly psychovegetative symptoms.

Nota de alcance (en)

Origins: Rich, open woods.

Uses: The roots and rhizomes are considered valuable in treating chronic rheumatism. The plant is also used as an expectorant, astringent, emmenagogue, and bitter tonic. In Appalachia, a tea made from the root is used to treat sore throat .

Nota bibliográfica

1) ALONSO, Jorge R. Tratado de fitomedicina : bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires : ISIS, 1998, p. 393.

2) MADHUBHANI, L. P., et al. Hops (Humulus lupulus) inhibits oxidative estrogen metabolism and estrogen-induced malignant transformation in human mammary epithelial cells (MCF-10A). Cancer Prevention Research. 2012, vol. 5, nº1, p. 73-81.

3) NADAOKA, Isao, et al. Oral administration of Cimicifuga racemosa extract attenuates immobilization stress-induced reactions. Natural Product Communications. 2012, vol. 7, nº 1, p. 15-18.

4) ROSTOCK, Matthias, et al. Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) in tamoxifen-treated breast cancer patients with climacteric complaints - a prospective observational study. Gynecological Endocrinology. 2011, vol. 27, nº 10, p. 844-848.

5) SPIERING, Martin J., et al. Gene identification in black cohosh (Actaea racemosa L.): expressed sequence tag profiling and genetic screening yields candidate genes for production of bioactive secondary metabolites. Plant Cell Reports. 2011, vol. 30, nº 4, p. 613-629.

6) A guide to medicinal plants of Appalachia/ Krochmal, Arnold; Walter, Russel S.; Doughty, Richard M.: USA: U.S.D.A Forest Service:,1959

Cimicifuga racemosa Nutt.
Término aceptado: 24-Abr-2012