Ephedra sinica Stap

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Sumidad aérea, tallos.

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action
Vasoconstrictor, antiinflamatorio.

EFECTOS ADVERSOS Y/O TOXICOLOGÍA= Adverse effects and pharmacology: el uso como descongestivo nasal no debe prolongarse mas de 4 o 5 días. Contradictorio en: hipertensión arterial, insuficiencia coronaria, hipertiroidismo, diabetes tipo II, glaucoma, atonia vesical, hipertrofia prostánica, lactancia y embarazo.

POSOLOGÍA= Posology:
El clorhidrato de efedrina se expende en cápsulas (25-50mg), jarabes, colirios, gelatina (para la descongestón de la mucosa bronquial o soluciones estériles (25-50 mg/ml) pudiéndose administrar 25-50mg por vía subcutánea, intramuscular o  intravenosa, según los casos.

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition:
Derivados del núcleo fenil-erilamina, efedrina, pseudoefedrina, metilefedrina, metil-pseudoefedrina, norefedrina, nor-pseudoefedrina, I-efedrina, efedrina racémica, efedradinas A, B, C, D y E, flavonoides, proantocianidoles, oxazolidona, taninos.

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA= Geografical zone:

Nota de alcance

Patente extraída del Chemical Abstracts

Compositions and methods for treatment of skin diseases and disorders using antimicrobial peptide
sequestering compounds
By: Dreher, Frank
Assignee: Neocutis S.A., Switz.
Patent Information: Sep 09, 2011, WO 2011109469, A1
Application: Mar 02, 2011, WO 2011-US26804
Priority: Mar 03, 2010, US 2010-310168P
Source: PCT Int. Appl., 66pp., Patent, 2011, CODEN: PIXXD2
Accession Number: 2011:1134347, CAN 155:442203, CAPLUS
Language: English
The present invention provides compns. contg. one or more antimicrobial peptide sequestering compds. and methods for
topical application of such compns. to the skin to treat skin diseases and disorders such as rosacea in humans.

Nota de alcance

ÚLTIMOS AVANCES EN LA QUÍMICA Y ACTIVIDADES BACTERIOLÓGICAS EN LAS PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants, last advances on chemistry and bacteria activities on the medicinal herbs

1) Context: Since AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in skeletal muscle of obese rodents stimulates fatty acid
oxidation, it is reasonable to hypothesize that pharmacological activation of AMPK might be of therapeutic benefit in
obesity. Objective: To investigate the effects of the traditional Korean anti-obesity drug GGEx18, a mixture of three
herbs, Laminaria japonica Aresch (Laminariaceae), Rheum palmatum L. (Polygonaceae), and Ephedra sinica Stapf
(Ephedraceae), on obesity and the involvement of AMPK in this process. Materials and methods: After high fat dietinduced
obese mice were treated with GGEx18, we studied the effects of GGEx18 on body weight, fat mass, skeletal
muscle lipid accumulation, and the expressions of AMPK, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor a (PPARa), and
PPARa target genes. The effects of GGEx18 and/or the AMPK inhibitor compound C on lipid accumulation and
expression of the above genes were measured in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. Results: Administration of GGEx18 to
obese mice for 9 weeks significantly (p < 0.05) decreased body and adipose tissue weights compared with obese control
mice (p < 0.05). Lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle was inhibited by GGEx18. GGEx18 significantly (p < 0.05)
increased skeletal muscle mRNA levels of AMPKa1 and AMPKa2 as well as PPARa and its target genes. Consistent
with the in vivo data, GGEx18 inhibited lipid accumulation, and similar activation of genes was observed in GGEx18-
treated C2C12 cells. However, compound C inhibited these effects in C2C12 cells. Discussion and conclusion: These
results suggest that GGEx18 improves obesity through skeletal muscle AMPK and AMPK-stimulated expression of
PPARa and its target enzymes for fatty acid oxidation.

2) A promising cleaner approach, including chem. extn., sepn. and purifn. by membranes sepn. technol., for producing
ephedrine from Ephedra sinica Stapf was introduced. The extn. yield of ephedrine reached 92.45 ± 0.46%, increased by
28.25 ± 0.13% than that of the traditional process, at solid-to-liq. ratio of 1/10, extn. temp. of 80 °C, total extn. time of 20
h and reextn. for 3 times. In microfiltration, the transmissivity for ephedrine was up to 97.88 ± 1.06% and the retention
rate of impurities reached 78.56 ± 0.96% when the membranes with pore size of 0.45 mm were employed at inlet and
outlet operating pressure of 0.26 MPa and 0.14 MPa, resp. The surface velocity of membrane channel was 3.5 m s-1
and membrane flux was 207 ± 3.71 l m-2 h-1. Nanofiltration membranes with 160 Da mol. wt. cut-off (MWCO) were
adopted to sep. the ephedrine from microfiltration permeate at a transmembrane pressure of 0.6 MPa wherein the
retention rate of ephedrine reached 99.88 ± 0.23% and the membrane flux was 19.88 ± 1.12 l m-2 h-1. For this improved
approach, the COD of nanofiltration permeate was only 110 ± 12.56 mg l-1 which could be recycled to the extn. process,
causing a decrease by 59.38 ± 1.67% of water consumption and 75.76 ± 1.89% of wastewater generation in comparison
with those of the traditional process.

3) Three polysaccharide fractions A, B and C (PA, PB and PC) were acquired from the stems of Ephedra sinica by
sequential extn. with cold water, hot water, and 1.0 M NaOH, resp. Immunosuppressive activities of PA, PB and PC
were investigated by carbon clearance test, delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction and humoral immune response in
vivo. Then PB was further isolated to afford four purified polysaccharides (ESP-B1, ESP-B2, ESP-B3 and ESP-B4) by
various ion exchange and gel-filtration chromatog. Meanwhile, the purified polysaccharides were subjected to compn.
anal. and valuated for mice splenocyte proliferation activity in vitro. Among four purified polysaccharides, ESP-B4 has
the highest inhibitory effect on splenocyte proliferation and its branches are extremely important for the expression of the
inhibitory effect. The results in the study indicate that PB and ESP-B4 have therapeutic potential for the treatment of
autoimmune and atopic diseases due to their immunosuppressive effects.

Nota bibliográfica

1) ALONSO, Jorge R. Tratado de fitomedicina : bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires : ISIS, 1998, p. 464.

2) SHIN SOON Shik, et al. The herbal composition GGEx18 from Laminaria japonica, Rheum palmatum, and Ephedra sinica reduces obesity via skeletal muscle AMPK and PPARa. Pharmaceutical biology. 2012, vol. 50, nº 4, p. 506-515.

3) PI, K., et al. Cleaner production of ephedrine from Ephedra sinica Stapf by membrane separation technology. Chemical Engineering Research and Design. 2011, vol. 89, nº 12, p. 2598-2605.

4) KUANG, Haixue, et al. Screening and comparison of the immunosuppressive activities of polysaccharides from the stems of Ephedra sinica Stapf. Carbohydrate Polymers. 2011, vol. 83, nº 2, p. 787-795.

5) KITANI, Yuki, et al. Genetic diversity of Ephedra plants in mongolia inferred from internal transcribed spacer sequence of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2011, vol. 34, nº 5, p. 717-726.

Ephedra sinica Stap
Término aceptado: 17-May-2012