Lycoperdon perlatum

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: La masa parda o negruzca.

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action: Hemostático. Aplicar la masa o polvo sobre las heridas 2 veces al día, esto hace que se seque y se detenga la hemorragia. Se puede guardar el polvo o la seta entera.

POSOLOGÍA= Posology: Heridas, úlceras, almorranas. El remedio es rociar bien con el polvo seco toda la herida para parar la salida de sangre. Para secar las úlceras, se solía aplicar una porción de este polvo sobre ellas; con este remedio se lograba que la úlcera no supurara. Se aplicaba varias veces durante el día. Para parar la hemorragia de las hemorroides externas se aplicaban sobre el ano, puestos en una grasa o paño, montoncitos de polvo; mantenían esta cura cierto tiempo, y la cambiaban de 2 a 3 veces al día o, a veces, más.

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition: Contiene sustancias antbacterianas.

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA= Geografical zone: Caminos de Santiago

Nota de alcance

DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA Y MEJORAMIENTO DE PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants and improvement of medicinal herbs:
 
Phylogenetic relationships, limits of species, and genera within Lycoperdaceae, were inferred by use of ITS and LSU nuclear rDNA sequence data.  Lycoperdaceae was confirmed as monophyletic, and Mycenastrum corium as a sister taxon to the ingroup.  Four major clades were identified and received weak to moderate support and correspond with the genera Lycoperdon, Bovista, Calvatia, and Disciseda.  The Lycoperdon clade includes species from Lycoperdon, Vascellum, Morganella, Handkea, Bouistella, and Calvatia.  The structure within the Lycoperdon clade is unresolved and several clades are more or less unsupported, which suggests treating the supported Lycoperdon clade as the genus Lycoperdon.  L. nigrescens and L. caudatum occur on single branches and their phylogenetic positions could not be resolved.  The phylogenetic analyses identified 31 species of Lycoperdon, 11 species of Bovista, 6 species of Calvatia, and 2 species of Disciseda.  In Lycoperdon 3 new species were recognized.  A new species closely related to B. limosa is identified and discussed.  A classification of Lycoperdaceae is proposed based on the results of the phylogenetic analyses.  Morphol. characters of species within and among identified clades are discussed.

Nota de alcance

ÚLTIMOS AVANCES EN LA QUÍMICA Y ACTIVIDADES BACTERIOLÓGICAS EN LAS PLANTAS MEDICINALES
 

1) (S)-23-Hydroxylanostrol, ergosterol a-endoperoxide, ergosterol 9,11-dehydroendoperoxide and (23E)-lanosta-8,23-dien-3/3,25-diol were sepd. from Lycoperdon perlatum by steam distn. and identified by mass spectroscopy.  3-Octanone, 1-octen-3-ol and (Z)-3-octen-1-ol were predominated components of volatiles. (3)
 
2) After sequential degrdn. with Na2S2O8 and KMnO4, the characteristics of the dark pigments from the soil gastromycete L. perlatum were described.  Several arom. acids (phenolic and benzenecarboxylic) were detected by gas chromatog.-mass spectrometry of the degrdn. products, but the aliph. content of these polymer fractions was predominant, contg. a high proportion of protein and showing fatty acids similar to those previously found in the lipid fraction.  An acid sol. fraction of melanin, of a highly aliph. nature, was also present in Lycoperdon fruit bodies. (4)

3) The structures of lycoperdic acid (I) and its ring-opened compd. HO2C(CH2)2C(OH)(CO2H)CH2CH(N+H3)CO2-, from L. perlatum, were detd. by chem. and phys. methods. (5)

Nota de alcance

Patente extraída del Chemical Abstracts= Patent extrated from the Database Chemical Abstracts

Post treatment method for heavy metal-enriched mushroom and plant.      Xu, Heng; Feng, Jun; Huang, Haiyan; Wang, Desheng; Yuan, Tian; Dai, Jiuzhou; Chen, Lan.  (Sichuan University, Peop. Rep. China).    Faming Zhuanli Shenqing  (2009),     18pp.  CODEN: CNXXEV  CN  101492697  A  20090729  Patent  written in Chinese.    Application: CN  2008-10147713  20081128.  Priority: CN  2008-10147713  20081128.  CAN 151:271798    AN 2009:925760    CAPLUS 

The title method comprises collecting mushroom and plant enriched with heavy metals, and performing methane fermn. to remove heavy metals by chem. pptn. or flocculation.  The method has the advantages of low cost, mature technique, high efficiency, high heavy metal removal rate (above 90%), and no secondary pollution.

Nota bibliográfica

1) ALFARO, Txumari, Plantas y remedios naturales de los caminos de santiago. Barcelona: B.S.A. 2008, 285pp.

2) LARSSON, Ellen; JEPPSON, Mikael. Phylogenetic relationships among species and genera of Lycoperdaceae based on ITS and LSU sequence data from north European taxa.  Mycological Research. 2008, vol.112, nº1, p.4-22.

3) SZUMNY, Antoni; et al..  Identification of steroid compounds and essential oils from Lycoperdon perlatum.  Przemysl Chemiczny. 2010, vol.89, nº4, p.550-553.

4) ALMENDROS, G.; et al. Melanins and lipids in Lycoperdon perlatum fruit bodies.  Transactions of the British Mycological Society. 1987, vol.88, nº4, p.533-7.

5) RHUGENDA-BANGA, Nziraboba;et al.  Amino acids and peptides from mushrooms.  Part 12.  A novel amino acid isolated from Lycoperdon perlatum. Phytochemistry (Elsevier). 1979, vol.18, nº3, p.482-4.

Lycoperdon perlatum
Término aceptado: 08-May-2013