Senecio jacobaea

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Geografical zone: Hojas y flores frescas.

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action: Emenagoga, emoliente, resolutiva y vulneraria.

POSOLOGÍA= Posology: Llagas, heridas y úlceras. Coger un puñado de hojas frescas, lavarlas bien, machacarlas, colocarlas en una gasa o tela y aplicar después de lavar la llaga; sujetar con una banda o tela. Cambiar la cataplasma 2 o 3 veces al día.

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition: Contiene alcaloides pirrolizidínicos (alcaloides hepatotóxicos), fuchesisenecionina, sececionina, flavonoides, heterósidos cumarínicos, ácidos clorogénico y fumárico, cinarina, tanósidos y ácidos grasos.

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA= Geografical zone: Caminos de Santiago.

Nota de alcance

DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA Y MEJORAMIENTO DE PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants and improvement of medicinal herbs:

The species compn. and mol. phylogeny of Senecio sect. Jacobaea (Asteraceae; Senecioneae) were studied to identify the closest relatives of Senecio jacobaea.  Maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses of DNA sequence data of the plastid (the trnT-L igs, the trnL intron, two parts of the trnK intron, and the psbA-trnH igs) and nuclear genome (ITS1, 5.8S, and ITS2) showed these markers to be suitable to assess the species compn. of sect. Jacobaea, identifying 24 species as members of this section.  Of these, nine species were not previously assigned to the section.  The selected DNA sequence regions, however, showed too little sequence divergence to be optimal for phylogenetic inference within sect. Jacobaea. In contrast, AFLPs proved to be too variable to be used to study relationships between the basal lineages in sect.  Jacobaea. Nonetheless, these markers are very useful to study the phylogeny of S. jacobaea and its closest relatives.  The combined use of DNA sequence data and AFLPs allowed us to take a major step towards resolving phylogenetic relationships in sect. Jacobaea, identifying Senecio alpinus, Senecio pancicii and Senecio subalpinus (using DNA sequence data) or Senecio chrysanthemoides (using AFLPs) as the closest relatives of S. jacobaea.

Nota de alcance

ÚLTIMOS AVANCES EN LA QUÍMICA Y ACTIVIDADES BACTERIOLÓGICAS EN LAS PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants, last advances on chemistry and bacteria activities on the medicinal herbs

1) Thus far not many studies focused on how herbivory in one plant part affects plant defense in the other.  The effects of root damage and a leaf-feeding herbivore (Mamestra brassicae) on pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) levels of Senecio jacobaea were investigated in a controlled environment.  Three cloned S. jacobaea genotypes, which differed in PA concns., received four treatments:  no damage, (2) root damage (removing half of the root system), (3) shoot herbivory by M. brassicae larvae, (4) root damage and shoot herbivory.  Shoot herbivory did not significantly affect shoot biomass, while root damage decreased both root and shoot biomass.  Shoot herbivory decreased PA concns. in the roots.  Conversely, root damage increased PA concns. in the roots.  Alkaloid concns. in the shoot showed a weak response to root damage, shoot herbivory had no effect on PA levels in the shoot.  The effect of damage on the allocation of PAs to shoot and roots depended on genotype.  One genotype allocated more PAs to the damaged site, another genotype did not change allocation and the third genotype allocated more PAs to the shoot if the roots were damaged.  Changes in PA compn. were obsd. in one genotype.  Shoot herbivory increased erucifoline concns. in the shoot and decreased concns. of senecionine in the roots.  In conclusion, we have shown that even in an alleged constitutively defended plant, damage of one compartment affects secondary metabolite level in the other.
2) Hybridization is known to be involved in a no. of evolutionary processes, including species formation, and the generation of novel defense characteristics in plants.  The genus Senecio of the Asteraceae family is highly speciose and has historically demonstrated significant levels of interspecific hybridization.  The evolution of novel chem. defense characteristics may have contributed to the success of Senecio hybrids.  Chem. defense against pathogens and herbivores has been studied extensively in the model species Senecio jacobaea, which is thought to hybridize in nature with Senecio aquaticus.  Here, the authors use amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) compn. to confirm that natural hybridization occurs between S. jacobaea and the closely related species S. aquaticus.  AFLPs are also used to est. the ancestry of hybrids.  The authors also demonstrate that even highly back-crossed hybrids can possess a unique mixt. of defense chems. specific to each of the parental species.  This hybrid system may therefore prove to be useful in further studies of the role of hybridization in the evolution of plant defense and resistance.

Nota de alcance

Patente extraída del Chemical Abstracts= Patent extrated from the Database Chemical Abstracts
New eremophilane sesquiterpene lactones from senecio jacobaea.      Zhang, Junzeng; Ji, Xiuhong; Liu, Jianhui; Zidichouski, Jeff; Wang, Yanwen.  (National Research Council of Canada, Can.).    PCT Int. Appl.  (2011),     CODEN: PIXXD2  WO  2011050481  A1  20110505  Designated States W: AE, AG, AL, AM, AO, AT, AU, AZ, BA, BB, BG, BH, BR, BW, BY, BZ, CA, CH, CL, CN, CO, CR, CU, CZ, DE, DK, DM, DO, DZ, EC, EE, EG, ES, FI, GB, GD, GE, GH, GM, GT, HN, HR, HU, ID, IL, IN, IS, JP, KE, KG, KM, KN, KP, KR, KZ, LA, LC, LK, LR, LS, LT, LU, LY, MA, MD, ME, MG, MK, MN, MW, MX, MY, MZ, NA, NG, NI, NO, NZ, OM, PE, PG, PH, PL, PT, RO, RS, RU, SC, SD, SE, SG, SK, SL, SM, ST, SV, SY, TH, TJ.  Designated States RW: AT, BE, CH, CY, DE, DK, ES, FI, FR, GB, GR, IE, IS, IT, LU, MC, MT, NL, NO, PT, SE, SM, TR, BF, BJ, CF, CG, CI, CM, GA, ML, MR, NE, SN, TD, TG.  Patent  written in English.    Application: WO  2010-CA1738  20101101.  Priority: US  2009-272758P  20091030.  AN 2011:554104    CAPLUS   (Copyright (C) 2011 ACS on SciFinder (R))  

New eremophilane sesquiterpene lactones were isolated from the extract of the root of  Senecio jacobaea having the general formula I.  The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 2D NMR techniques.  Methods of using the compounds as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and neuroprotective compounds are also described.

Nota bibliográfica

1) ALFARO, Txumari, Plantas y remedios naturales de los caminos de santiago. Barcelona: B.S.A. 2008, p. 116.

2) PELSER, Pieter B.; GRAVENDEEL, Barbara; VAN DER MEIJDEN, Ruud. Phylogeny reconstruction in the gap between too little and too much divergence: the closest relatives of Senecio jacobaea (Asteraceae) according to DNA sequences and AFLPs.  Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 2003, Vol.29, nº3, p.613-628.
3) HOL, W. H, et al. Root damage and aboveground herbivory change concentration and composition of pyrrolizidine alkaloids of Senecio jacobaea.  Basic and Applied Ecology. 2004, Vol.5, nº3, p.253-260.
4) KIRK, Heather, et al.  Natural hybridization between Senecio jacobaea and Senecio aquaticus: molecular and chemical evidence. Molecular Ecology. 2004, Vol.13, nº8, p.2267-2274.

Senecio jacobaea
Término aceptado: 08-May-2013