Berberis darwinii Hook.

Nota de alcance

DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA Y MEJORAMIENTO DE PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants and improvement of medicinal herbs

Variation in genome size of 24 populations belonging to 11 NW Patagonian species of Berberis was analysed as a function of the environment and geographical location. The variation showed three levels of discontinuity, two of which corresponded to diploid species (2n = 28) while the third corresponded to polyploid species (2n = 56). Diploids with DNA content ranging from 1.463 pg to 1.857 pg included Berberis cabrerae, B. chillanensis, B. montana, B. serrato-dentata and B. bidentata. Diploids with DNA content ranging from 2.875 pg to 3.806 pg included B. linearifolia, B. darwinii, B. parodii and B. empetrifolia. The genome size of the polyploid species B. buxifolia and B. heterophylla ranged from 5.809 pg to 6.844 pg. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to represent the variability of environmental conditions. The eigenvectors of the principal component axes showed that PCl discriminates the populations according to rainfall, types of vegetation and geomorphology; altitude and latitude, on the other hand, contribute to PC2 and PC3, respectively. From these results it is concluded: (1) that diploids with lower DNA content grow in high-elevation sites having greater rainfall but lower water availability; (2) diploids with higher DNA content are associated with half-elevation forests where the vegetative period is longer, the water availability is greater and the temperatures are higher; and (3) the distribution pattern of polyploids is considerably wider than that of diploids, which are geographically and ecologically restricted to forest areas. These results suggest that the C-value plays an important role in the ability of the species to adapt to different growing conditions. (C) 2000 Annals of Botany Company. 

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Frutos, hojas y raíz. 

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action: Anti-inflamatorio, tónico.

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition: The pseudobenzylisoquinolines are a small group of alkaloids incorporating a benzylisoquinoline nucleus. Ring A is usually oxygenated at C-6 and C-7, while Ring C is inevitably oxygenated at C-2`, 3` and 4`. It has been suggested that pseudobenzylisoquinolines could originate in vivo from the oxidative cleavage of protoberberinium salts, thus accounting for the unusual oxygenation pattern observed for ring C(1). Known pseudobenzylisoquinolines include polycarpine(2), polyberbine(3), taxilamine(4), (-) -ledecorine(5), and rugosinone(6,7). The occurrence of pseudobenzylisoquinolines must be fairly widespread because they have been reported in members of the Annonaceae (2), Berberidaceae (3,4), Fumariaceae (5), and Ranunculaceae (6,7). We have now observed the presence of the amorphous, new, yellow pseudobenzylisoquinoline alkaloid, dihydrorugosinone (1), in Chilean Berberis darwinii Hook, as well as in Berberis actinacantha Mart. Ex Schult. (Berberidaceae). The 200 MHz CDCI3, 1H-nmr spectrum of dihydrorugosinone is summarized in formula 1. This spectrum is essentially identical with that of the known syntheic dihydrorugosinone prepared by in vitro oxidation of herberine (1). Similarly, the uv spectrum of the natural product is close to that reported for the synthetic material (7). Significantly, B. darwinii also produces rugosinone. Because berberine is found in all Berberis species, it is quite possible that this quaternary alkaloid may be oxidized in vivo to dihydrogenated to rugosinone (1). The oxidation of dihydrorugosinone (1) to rugosinone has also been carried out in vitro using air and ethanolic NaOH (8). 

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA= Geografical zone: S. de Chile y S.O. de Argentina. 

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Distribución: Regiones Metropolitana de Santiago, Maule, Nuble, Biobio, Araucania, Los Rios, Los Lagos, Aysen.

Usos medicinales: Hojas y frutos en infusion se usan contra las inflamaciones. La corteza de la raiz tostada y hecha polvo se usa como cicatrizante de heridas. De la decoccion de sus hojas se obtiene un purgante suave y febrifugo.

Nota bibliográfica

1) TOURSARKISSIAN, Martín. Plantas medicinales de Argentina : sus nombres botánicos, vulgares, usos y distribución geográfica. Buenos Aires : Hemisferio Sur, 1980, 178 p.

2) VALENCIA, E.; Weiss, et al. Dihydrorugosinone, a pseudobenzylisoquinoline alkaloid from Berberis darwinii and Berberis actinacantha. Journal of natural products . 1984, vol.47, nº6, p.1050-1051.
 
3) BOTTINI, M.C.J., et al. Relationships among genome size, environmental conditions and geographical distribution in natural populations of NW patagonian species of Berberis L. (Berberidaceae). Annals of Botany . 2000, vol.86, nº3, p.565-573 .

4) Plantas silvestres comestibles y medicinales de Chile y otras partes del mundo/Cordero R., Sebastián; Abella A., Lucía; Galvez L. Francisca; Corporación chilena de la madera: Concepción, 2017 . -- 292 p.

Berberis darwinii Hook.
Término aceptado: 05-Sep-2007