Aloe vera

Nota de alcance

DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA Y MEJORAMIENTO DE PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants and improvement of medicinal herbs:

Mol. marker based anal. of plants relies on high yields of pure DNA samples.  This article deals with optimization of DNA isolation and PCR conditions for RAPD anal. of medicinal plants, Asparagus and Aloe vera.  The method involves a modified CTAB extn. including addn. of PVP, .3M Nacl along with CTAB.  The DNA isolated was used for randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) anal.  RAPD protocol was optimized using different concns. of Mgcl2, Taq polymerase, genomic DNA, primer annealing temp.  Reproducible amplifiable products were obsd. in PCR reactions.

Nota de alcance

ÚLTIMOS AVANCES EN LA QUÍMICA Y ACTIVIDADES BACTERIOLÓGICAS EN LAS PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants, last advances on chemistry and bacteria activities on the medicinal herbs

1) Mycotoxigenic fungi isolated from corn, sorghum grains and peanut kernels were identified.  Nine fungal species belonging to three genera were recovered from the tested samples.  With the exception of the sorghum isolate, all tested Aspergillus flavus isolates were capable of producing variable amts. of G1 and B1 aflatoxin ranging from 1-6 ppb (ppb).  The highest amt. of aflatoxin B1 (8ppb) was produced by A. flavus isolated from corn grains.  The sorghum isolate of Penicillium oxalicum was the highest producer of citreoviridin (37ppb).  Fusarium subglutinans isolate recovered from popcorn was capable of producing fumonisin B1, zearalenone and vomitoxin (DON).  Corn isolate of Fusarium proliferatum however, failed to produce fumonisin B1 and sorghum isolate of Fusarium verticillioides produced only fumonisin B1.  The antifungal activity of yellow liq. fraction of Aloe vera against toxigenic fungi was tested.  All tested concns. were effective in inhibiting fungal growth.

2) In South America, visceral leishmaniasis is a zoonosis caused by the protozoan species Leishmania infantum (syn. L. chagasi) and is primarily transmitted through the bite of the female Lutzomyia longipalpis.  Its main reservoir in urban areas is the dog.  The application of control measures recommended by health agencies have not achieved significant results in reducing the incidence of human cases, and the lack of effective drugs to treat dogs resulted in the prohibition of this course of action in Brazil.  Therefore, it is necessary to search new alternatives for the treatment of canine and human visceral leishmaniasis.  The objectives of this study were to evaluate the in vitro effect of fractions from Aloe vera (aloe), Coriandrum sativum (coriander), and Ricinus communis (castor) on promastigotes and amastigotes of L. infantum and to analyze the toxicity against the murine monocytic cells RAW 264.7.  To det. the viability of these substances on 50% parasites (IC50), we used a tetrazolium dye (MTT) colorimetric assay (bromide 3-4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-dephenyltetrazolium), and on amastigotes we performed an in situ ELISA.  All fractions were effective against L. infantum promastigotes and did not differ from the pos. control pentamidine (p > 0.05).  However, the R. communis Et acetate and chloroform fractions, as well as the C. sativum methanol fraction, were the most effective against amastigotes and did not differ from the pos. control amphotericin B (p > 0.05).  The R. communis Et acetate fraction was the least toxic, presenting 83.5% viability of RAW 264.7 cells, which was similar to the results obtained with amphotericin B (p > 0.05).  Based on these results, we intend to undertake in vivo studies with R. communis Et acetate fractions due the high effectiveness against amastigotes and promastigotes of L. infantum and the low cytotoxicity towards murine monocytic cells.

3) Aloe vera L. contains several active components including anthraquinones (aloe-emodin and aloin), glucans, chromones, phytosterols, flavonoids, polysaccharides and pectins.  Exptl. studies on A. vera ext. and its isolated chem. constituents have exhibited a no. of pharmacol. activities and therapeutic effects such as anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, anti-arthiritic activities as well as hypoglycemic, immunomodulatory and wound healing effects.  Main active constituent of Aloe vera needs further attention.  The present review attempts to give a short overview on pharmacol., toxicol. and clin. studies on A. vera and its active compds.  Response of A. vera to environmental conditions e.g drought and salinity indicates that it can be cultivated in drought prone and saline areas.  Several companies are manufg. aloe juices as neutraceutical and other products for different health problems with lofty claims, however a std. procedure should be followed for their prepn. and efficacy of different prepns. should be standardized with marker compds.  The information presented here may serve as a useful ref. tool for user of A. vera products.

Nota de alcance

Patente extraída del Chemical Abstracts= Patent extrated from the Database Chemical Abstracts

A novel product aloe jelly and the method of processing the same.  Azam, M. Mohibbe.  (Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), India).    Indian Pat. Appl.  (2011),     37pp.  CODEN: INXXBQ  IN  2010DE00274  A  20110812  Patent  written in English.    Application: IN  2010-DE274  20100209.  Priority: IN  2010-DE274  20100209.  AN 2011:1059273    CAPLUS   (Copyright (C) 2011 ACS on SciFinder (R)) 

This invention relates to a novel edible product called Aloe jelly exhibiting appealing flavor, color, texture, and a ready to eat delicacy from the juice of Aloe vera or other species of Aloe, having sweetening agents ranging from 0 to 65%; gelling agents, 1 to 3.0%; aloe juice, 1 to 100%, edible acid, 0.1 to 3.0%; coloring and flavoring agents; and the method of processing thereof comprising the steps, Dissolving sweetening agents, acidulants, flavor and coloring agents in aloe juice by gentle heating, not allowing the juice temp. to exceed 60° C, Sep., dissolving gelling agent in water by boiling and cooling the soln. to about 50° C, Combining and mixing above two solns. thoroughly and allowing the combined soln. to set in refrigeration/ambient condition in the presence/absence of multivalent cation.

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Mesófilo de las hojas, látex.

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action: Laxante, inmunomodulador, etc.

EFECTOS ADVERSOS Y/O TOXICOLOGÍA= Adverse effects and toxicology: Dermatitis alérgica, por excesivo consumo del látex trastornos del ritmo cardíaco, calambres musculares, debilidad, pulso lento e hipotermia, etc.

POSOLOGÍA= Posology: La pulpa (translúcida y gelatinosa) puede pasarse directamente sobre la piel, como tonificante y en casos de acné...

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition: Antraquinonas glicosiladas , resina , mucílago , entre otros...

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA= Geografical zone: Originario posiblemente de la isla de Socostra en el noroeste de África, se cultiva en todo el mundo.

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Parte empleada: hoja.
Usos: dolores y heridas.
Preparación: para dolores untar la salvia en la zona de dolor.

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Tratamiento de heridas, antiparasitario, laxante: Gel o pulpa de las hojas

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Hojas

Efectos: laxante1, cicatrizante.

Precauciones: no es aconsejable su empleo oral durante el embarazo, la  actancia y niños menores de 10 años ni cuando existan dolores abdominales, nauseas y vómitos. No se debe administrar a pacientes con enfermedad de Crohn, colitis ulcerativa y síndrome de colon irritable. Como todo laxante, no se debe utilizar en tratamientos por más de 1 a 2 semanas.
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This plant may be named from the Arabic word alloeh, which means “bitter and shiny substance.” Aloe has been used medicinally for centuries, especially to soothe and aid the healing of burns. Research shows that one of its active ingredients is bradykinase, which is a protease inhibitor that relieves pain and decreases swelling and redness. Another ingredient, germanium, is a fast-acting pain killer. Aloe gel taken internally is a powerful purgative. Aloe grows better as a houseplant than it does out in gardens in Indiana.

Part used::
Leaves

Origin:
Africa, West Indies.
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Uso tradicional:
esta planta se usa principalmente para tratar la tos y problemas bronquiales, y para curar heridas y problemas de la piel. Según INVIMA (2000, 2003) el jugo y mucílago de esta especie se usa como axante, expectorante y cicatrizante.
Toxicidad
Esta especie esta contraindicada en estados inflamatorios u obstructivos del tracto digestivo, apendicitis, obstrucción biliar, embarazo, lactancia y daño renal, y no se debe usar por periodos largos de tratamiento (INVIMA 2000, 2003).

Método de empleo:
se utilizan las hojas de individuos adultos que se recogen en cualquier época del año. Se separa el mucílago (cristal) de la cobertura y se coloca directamente sobre el área afectada, o se toma como jarabe al mezclar o  icuar el mucílago con leche, jugo, miel, azúcar, mango o huevo.

Origen: Colombia

Nota de alcance (en)

Herb 60 cm, dooryard garden, San Andrés.

Uses: use flesh of leaves as shampoo for baldness; mix flesh of leaves with water, drink for peptic ulcers. Comerford 117, 15 Nov 1994.

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Whole plant: Juice, often mixed with raw cow's milk, used to treat asthma, pneumonia, biliousness and colds. Juice mixed with grated cassava and "fresh fat" (cattle tallow) is applied externally to treat ringworm and "tete" (acute dermatitis).

Leaf: Juice employed to stop cuts from bleeding. Juice beaten with egg white is drunk as a purgative or emetic. Emollient infusion made from leaf is abortifacient. Juice for a laxative, antimalarial, hairwash, stomach pain remedy, asthma; mixed with molasses for a cough remedy; infusion of leaf-juice for epilepsy and rheumatism, for liver and kidney pain; rubbed on skin to ease itches, swellings and worm afflictions; for difficult menstruation. In NW Guyana, leaves used to treat abcesses and sores as well as for asthma, colds and coughs, malaria, pneumonia; also as a laxative.

Leaf  Toxicity: abortive.

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Traditional Medicinal Uses: The plant has been used in cosmetic preparations for the treatment of pimples, acne and mouth ulcers.[2] It has also been used to control bleeding, itching of piles, and relief from arthritic pains.[2] The Chinese uses the plant juice as a mild laxative, wash for piles, abscesses and scabies. In the Philippines, it is used to treat dysentery and pain in the kidneys.[... more on the book

Toxicity: Severe gastrointestinal cramping can occur if the latex (which is just below the leaf surface) is taken internally.[72] Toxic doses cause severe haemorrhagic diarrhoea and kidney damage, and sometimes death. The lethal dose of the dried plant extract is stated to be 1 g/day taken for a period of several days.Should not be used during pregnancy.... more on the book

Pharmacological Activities: Angiogenic, Antifungal, Antidiabetic, Anti inflammatory.  Anticancer,[ Antimicrobial, Antioxidant,[... more on the book

Phytoconstituents: Aloin (barbaloin), arabinose, aloe-emodin, aloetinic acid, emodin, aloeresin A–C, aloesone, aloeride and others.[

Origin: Native to North Africa; cultivated in China for medicine and widely used as indoor ornamental plants

there is more specific information about this plant on the book

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Range. Canary Islands and Arabian Peninsula.

Use
Leaf: Used to treat menstrual disorders. The inner gelatinous flesh can be eat­en sprinkled with a little salt obtained from making an ash of the five parts of the pauk plant (Butea monosperma), to cleanse the menstrual blood. Used against boils, edema, liver diseases, skin diseases, fevers, asthma, leprosy, jaundice, and bladder stones. Used as a powerful and effective as an ointment. If the inner flesh is used as a poultice against the stomach, it will draw out internal myomas and tumors. The inner gel can be placed on the eyes to cure eyes that are sore or ache. Squeezing out the inner gel, pouring it into the ear after warming it will cure earaches speedily. If a person suffering from jaun­dice eats the inner gel, it will give good bowel movements and encourage urination, curing the condition. If the inner gel is scraped off, soaked in rice washing water, and added to sugar, it can be taken to cure urinary disorders.

Nota bibliográfica

1) ALONSO, Jorge R. Tratado de fitomedicina : bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires : ISIS, 1998, p. 238.

2) EL-SAMAWATY, Abd El-Rahim M. A., et al. Bio-fungicidal activity of Aloe vera sap against mycotoxigenic seed-borne fungi. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin. 2011, vol.20, nº6, p.1352-1359.

 ) RONDON, Fernanda C. M., et al.  In vitro effect of Aloe vera, Coriandrum sativum and Ricinus communis fractions on Leishmania infantum and on murine monocytic cells. Veterinary Parasitology. 2011, vol.178, nº3-4, p.235-240.

4) FAROOQI, A. H. A.; KUMAR, V. S. Review of biological and therapeutic effects of Aloe vera L. and its active constituents. Journal; General Review  written in English.  Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Sciences. 2009, vol.31, nº2, p.159-165.

5) SINGH, Bharat, et al. Studies on effect of PCR-RAPD conditions for molecular analysis in Asparagus (Satawari) and Aloe vera medicinal plants. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 2010, vol.4, nº12, p.6570-6574.

6) COMERFORD, Simon C. Economic Botany. vol. 50 . -- p. 327 - 336 1996

7) Robertt, A., et al.. Medicinal Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Suriname, French Guyana)/Smithsonian NMNH. cited online: 17-08-2017

8) Plantas medicinales de La Matamba y El Piñonal, municipio de Jamapa, Veracruz/ Escamilla Pérez, Blanca Edith; Moreno Casaola, Patricia. INECOL: Mexico, 2015, 99p.

9) Escalona Cruz, José Luis; et al/ Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales vol. 20, no 4. 2015. p -- 429 - 439

10) A guide to medicinal plants / Hwee Ling, Koh; Tung Kian, Chua; Chay Hoon, Tan. Singapore:  World vScientific Public Co. Pte. Ltd., 2009. p 289 p.

11) Hierbas medicinales/ Chile. Ministerio de Agricultura.  p.64

12) Hull,Kathleen;  Hull, Meredith Photog./Indiana Medical History Museum: Guide to the Medicinal Plant Garden./ USA: Indiana Medical History Museum. 2010. -- p. 58.

13) Arango Caro, Sandra /Guía de plantas medicinales de uso común en Salento, Colombia. St. Lois : Missouri Botanical Garden Press., 2004. - p. 71

14) DeFilipps, Robert A.; Krupnick, Gary A. / PhytoKeys, v. 102. - - p. 1 - 314,  2018.

Aloe vera
Término aceptado: 10-May-2013