Jacaranda mimosifolia Don.

Nota de alcance

PARTE UTILIZADA= Used part: Hojas, corteza.

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA= Pharmacological action: Antisifilítico, anticonceptivo.

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA= Chemical composition: Chemical studies on the constituents of Jacaranda have only been reported for six species: Jacaranda acutifolia (Ferguson and Lien, 1982), Jacaranda caucana (Ogura et al., 1976, 1977a,b), Jacaranda copaia (Sauvain et al., 1993), Jacaranda decurrens (Blatt et al., 1998; Varanda et al., 1992), Jacaranda filicifolia (Ali and Houghton, 1999) and Jacaranda mimosifolia (Chisholm and Hopkins, 1962; Sankara-Subramanian et al., 1972, 1973; Prakash and Garg, 1980; Moharram and Marzouk, 2007). The compounds have been identified as triterpenes (Fig. 2), quinones (Fig. 3), flavonoids (Fig. 4), fatty acids (Fig. 5), acetosides (Fig. 6), and, recently, a novel phenylethanoid dimmer (Fig. 7). In the respective figures, a full description of the phytochemistry of these species, the part of the plant investigated and the molecular structures are presented. Jacaranone (10), obtained from the water extract of the twigleaf and stem bark of Jacaranda caucana, showed important in vivo and in vitro anticancer activity against P-388 lymphocytic leukemia cells at 2mg/kg with marginal cytotoxicity in Eagles 9KB carcinoma of the nasopharynx (Ogura et al., 1976, 1977a). Because of its high drug potential, jacaranone was patented for antitumor activity in 1977 (Farnsworth et al., 1977). Since then, jacaranone and other derivatives have been described from other species (Pérez- Castorena et al., 2001; Torres et al., 2000; Yvin et al., 1985) and its synthesis has also been published (Lasne et al., 1980; Parker and Andrade, 1979). The moderate anticancer activity of a naturally occurring jacaranone glycoside has also been determined (Tian et al., 2006). Jacaranone was later also isolated from the leaves of Jacaranda copaia during a study of its anti-leishmanial activity. Tests with jacaranone at a concentration of 0.33mM/kg daily for 5 days, or when applied as a single dose at 0.41mM/kg against Leishmania amazonensis in vivo on BALB/c infected mice, showed strong cutaneous toxicity, an inflammatory reaction and low specificity when applied subcutaneously. Additionally, toxicity assays performed have led to an estimated LD50 value of jacaranone between 67 mg/kg (total survival) and 200mg/kg (no survival) (Sauvain et al., 1993). Derivatives were prepared to establishing the anticancer activity of jacaranone-related naphthoquinones in a KB in vitro test system (Deutsch and Zalkow, 1982). Moderate toxicity of jacaranone was demonstrated against many organisms. Jacaranone inhibits the growth of tobacco cutworm larvae (Spodoptera litura) and the root growth of some vegetables. It is toxic to brine shrimp (Artemia salina), inducesmetamorphosis in marine invertebrate larvae (Pecten maximus) (Yvin et al., 1985), has insecticidal properties and antimicrobial activity (Xu et al., 2003). Toxicity studies performed by Xu et al. (2003) in male albino Swiss-Webster mice have associated the mode of action of jacaranone with neurotoxicity (LD50 = 150–200 mg/kg intra peritoneal i.p.) and also with glutathione GSH depletion in the liver. In addition, 8 Z, 10 E, 12 Z-octadocatrienoic acid (27) found as the main component of the seed oil of Jacaranda mimosifolia (Chisholm and Hopkins, 1962) reported high cyclooxygenase activity (IC50 = 2.4mM) (Nugteren and Christ-Hazelhof, 1987). However, not further information on regard to this compound is available. Interestingly, none of these two sources reported NMR data or detailed GC–MS information. The only detail information that characterized the structure is based on melting points, UV and IR analysis. Furthermore, it seems also to be confusion on the trivial name given by Nugteren and Christ-Hazelhof (1987). Jacarandic acid 9 is used to refer the 2_, 3_, 19_-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid and not 8 Z, 10 E, 12 Z-octadocatrienoic acid 27. Recently, Moharramand Marzouk (2007) published information on a novel phenylethanoid dimer jacaraninoside (34).

ZONA GEOGRÁFICA= Geografical zone: Brasil, Paraguay y N.O de Argentina. 

Nota de alcance

DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA Y MEJORAMIENTO DE PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants and improvement of medicinal herbs

Studies on the use of tree bark as biomonitors for environmental pollutants are still very scarce. We evaluated the reliability of using Jacaranda mimosifolia, a common tree in Tshwane City of South Africa, as a suitable biomonitor of atmospheric trace metals. Bark samples were collected from ten different locations during two sampling periods. The concentrations of the metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The concentrations of the metals were 33.2-1,795 ug/g (Pb), 21.4-210 ug/g (Cu), 68.4-490 ug/g (Zn), 30.6-2,916 ug/g (Cr), 0.12-1.34 ug/g (Cd), and 6.04-68.0 ug/g (V), respectively. The differences obtained for the results from different sites were significant (p < 0.05). A significant difference was also observed between the two sampling periods. The trace metals concentrations suggested that automobile emissions are a major source of these metals. The study also confirms the suitability of J. mimosifolia as a biomonitor of atmospheric deposition of these metals. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Nota de alcance

ÚLTIMOS AVANCES EN LA QUÍMICA Y ACTIVIDADES BACTERIOLÓGICAS EN LAS PLANTAS MEDICINALES= Medicinal plants, last advances on chemistry and bacteria activities on the medicinal herbs

The methanol extracts of the leaves and stem bark of four Bignoniaceae plants Jacaranda mimosifolia D.  Dol., Tecoma stans Linn., Tabebuia rosea (Bertol) D.C., and Crescentia cujete Linn. were studied for their antimicrobial activity using a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi.  Extracts of both the leaves and stem bark of majority of plant species studied showed variable but remarkable broad spectrum antimicrobial activity.  However, methanol extracts of Tecoma stans leaves was found to be effective against only Candida albicans at the concentrations employed.  It was observed that the extracts of stem bark generally showed better antimicrobial activity than those of the leaves and some organisms were selectively more sensitive to the extracts than others.  Preliminary phytochemical screening of these plants revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, quinones and traces of saponins.  The antimicrobial activity observed are discussed in relation to the chemical constituents reportedly isolated from these plants and their traditional uses.

Nota de alcance (en)

Summary
Jacaranda mimosifolia (Bignoniaceae), also known by the vernacular name of jacaranda or green ebony, is a large tree that grows in several regions of South America. According to pharmacological information, the external use of the leaves in the treatment of skin disorders (infection and inflammation) could be supported by the fact that antimicrobial and antiinflammatory activities have been described for its components. Some interest has also arisen in the field of experimental oncology for jacaranone, a compound also present in other Bignonaceae.

Nota bibliográfica

1) TOURSARKISSIAN, Martín. Plantas medicinales de Argentina : sus nombres botánicos, vulgares, usos y distribución geográfica. Buenos Aires : Hemisferio Sur, 1980, p.14.

2) Gachet, M.S., Schühly, W. Jacaranda-An ethnopharmacological and phytochemical review . Journal of Ethnopharmacology . 2009, vol.121, nº1, p.14-27.
 
3) Olowoyo, J.O.; van Heerden, E.; Fischer, J.L. Investigating Jacaranda mimosifolia tree as biomonitor of atmospheric trace metals. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2010, vol.164, nº1-4, p. 435-443.

4) Binutu O A; Lajubutu B A. Antimicrobial potentials of some plant species of the Bignoniaceae family. African journal of medicine and medical sciences . 1994, vol.23, nº3, p.269-73.

5) ALONSO, Jorge ; DESMARCHELIER, Cristian. Plantas medicinales autóctonas de la Argentina : bases científicas para su aplicación en atención primaria de la salud.  Buenos Aires: L.O.L.A, 2005, p. 274.

6) Plantas medicinales autóctonas de la Argentina. Bases científicas para su aplicación en atención primaria de la salud / Jorge Alonso y Cristian Jorge Desmarchelier. - 1a ed. - Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires: Corpus Libros Médicos y Científicos, 2015.

Jacaranda mimosifolia Don.
Término aceptado: 05-Sep-2007